HomeHealth and FitnessBenign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Enlargement of the Prostate Gland- Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Enlargement of the Prostate Gland- Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common condition that can be seen in males. It is the ailment in which the enlargement of the prostate gland appears as the main characteristic feature. Although benign hyperplasia of prostate is not as dangerous as prostate cancer, but it is an uncomfortable condition for men. 

The other names for enlargement of the prostate gland are, benign prostatic obstruction and benign hypertrophy. The growth process in the prostate gland is a normal physiological change. It grows in two phases. One phase starts at the time of puberty and the other phase starts after the age of 25. And this second phase of growth is a lifetime process. So the abnormal enlargement of the prostate gland usually occurs in the second stage. 

What are the outcomes of prostate enlargement?

The abnormal size of the prostate gland affects its nearby organs and ducts. As this gland is an integral part of the urinary and reproductive systems of man, the enlarged prostate compresses the urethra and affects the normal urinary flow.

Due to pressure on the urethra, the bladder stops emptying itself completely and urinary retention takes place. In this way, many other complications arise due to prostate enlargement.

If you are having problem related to prostate gland, you can consult the best urologists for treatment. 

What causes Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia? 

Although the exact reason behind the prostatic hyperplasia is still unknown, scientific studies and theories support some approaches that refer to causes of prostate enlargement; 

  • As this condition is most prevalent in elderly men, the age factor is one of the reasons behind prostate hypertrophy.
  • Some studies suggest, men whose testicles are removed before puberty show no prostate enlargement. This theory suggests a relation between prostate hyperplasia and factors affecting the testicles.
  •  A normal man has high testosterone in his body, but these hormone levels start declining with age. On the other hand, men also have small levels of estrogen in their bodies. As men age, the balance between these two hormones gets disturbed. Scientists have proved that the high levels of estrogen can trigger some specific types of substances in the prostate gland that induce hyper-division of the cells in the gland itself. This leads to prostate enlargement.
  • Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is a specific type of hormone in men that enhances the growth of the prostate gland. Scientists propose a theory that although testosterone levels drop in elderly men, the levels of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) remain high in them. This leads to prostatic hypertrophy in aged men.

Who is at the High Risk of Developing Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia?

Men who are: 

  • Above the age of 40
  • Having a family history of prostate enlargement
  • Less active and do not do any physical activity.
  • Obese, and having medical conditions like diabetes, heart problems, high cholesterol issues, etc.
  • Having history of erectile dysfunction.

What Symptoms are Shown by an Enlarged Prostate?

As mentioned above, prostate is an integral part of the urogenital system of men. So, the abnormality in its size influences the urinary and reproductive system, showing the following signs and symptoms;

  • Urge to urinate more frequently; more than 8 times a day.
  • Urinary urgency that accompanies the loss of urinary control
  • Weak urine stream
  • Dribbling while urinating
  • Urinary retention (not emptying the urinary bladder completely)
  • Loss of urinary control, a condition known as urinary incontinence.
  • Painful urination
  • Pain after ejaculation
  • The unusual coloration and odor of urine

Benign urinary hyperplasia is a very silent condition. Usually the patient does not know his problem until the symptoms appear, like inability to urinate properly. 

The severity of symptoms is not dependent on how big the prostate gland is. Rather some men have mild symptoms with an extremely enlarged prostate gland, while some have the serious symptoms with slight enlargement of their prostate gland.

Is Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia a Treatable condition?

The benign enlargement of prostate gland is a treatable condition. Your urologist suggests treatment according to your symptoms.

  • Lifestyle changes are the key to managing or treating an enlarged prostate. Regular exercise that enhances urinary bladder control, avoiding alcohol and smoking, preventing constipation, etc. are some of the crucial lifestyle changes for treating prostatic hypertrophy
  • Medicines are also used to treat an enlarged prostate.
  • Minimal invasive procedures are performed to relieve the symptoms of benign hyperplasia of the prostate
  • Surgical treatments are also conducted to treat prostatic hypertrophy.

When to see a Doctor?

If you have the above-mentioned symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia, you should consult your urologist. As these symptoms are quite similar to some serious conditions like prostate cancer, so it is necessary to rule out the exact cause of symptoms at the right time. You need emergency treatment, if you are unable to urinate completely, or have a fever with chills, blood in urine, and severe pain in the lower abdomen.


Benign Prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common problem in elderly men. It is not as dangerous as prostate cancer, but the symptoms are very unpleasant. The enlargement of prostate gland depends on many factors that results in complications of the urinary and reproductive system in men. The enlargement of prostate gland is a treatable condition with simple lifestyle changes, medications, and surgical procedures.  Consult the best urologists in Pakistan, for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) through

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